ANSWER OF EXERCISE PAGE 186 – 202

Mei 13, 2011

Page 186

Exercise 11

  1. The subject (of the lectures) was quite interesting.(C)   
  2. The supplies (for the camping trip) needs to be packed. (I)
  3. The chairs under the table in the dinning room is quite comfortable. (I)
  4. The players on the winning team in the competition put forth a lot of effort. (I)
  5. The food for the guests at the party are on the long tables. (C)
  6. The cost of the clothes was higher than i had expected. (I)
  7. The rugs in the front rooms of the house are going to be washed today. (C)
  8. The waiters and waitresses in this restaurant always serves the food efficiently. I)
  9. The lights in the corner of the room need to be kept on all night. (C)
  10. The meeting of the members of the council begins at 3:00 in the afternoon. (C)

 

Page 187

Exercise 12

  1. Half of the students in the class arrive early. (C)
  2. Some of the fruit are rotten. (I)
  3. All of the next chapter contains very important information. (C)
  4. Most of the people in the room is paying attention. (C)
  5. Part of the soup is left on the stove. (C)
  6. Some of the movie were just too violent for me. (I)
  7. All of the details in the report need to be checked. (I)
  8. Most of the money is needed to pay the bills. (C)
  9. The first half of the class consists of lecture and note-talking. (I)
  10. Some of the questions on the test was impossible to answer. (I)

Page 188

Exercise 13

  1. Anybody are welcome at the party. (I)
  2. No one here is afraid of skydiving. (C)
  3. Everyone in the world needs love and respect. (I)
  4. Someone have to clean up the house. (C)
  5. Each plant in the garden appear healty and strong. (C
  6. You should understand that anything is possible. (I)
  7. Everthing in the salad are good for you. (C)
  8. Nobody in the class have completed the assignment on time. (C)
  9. I am sure that every detail have been considered. (C)
  10. Everybody know the rules, but somebody is not following them. (I)

Page 189

Exercise (Sklills 11-13)

1.  The receptionist in the entryway to the offices is able to answer your questions. (C)

2.  All of the information in the documents are important. (C)

3.  Anyone in one of the classes has to take the final exam. (I)

4.  The coordinator of community services are arranging the program. (I)

5.  Most of the car are covered with mud. (C)

6.  Nothing more is going to be completed today. (C)

7.  The drinks in the pitchers on the table in the ballroom is for everyone. (C)

8.  Everybody were told to be here at 8:00, but somebody is not here. (C)

9.  Some of the meetings at the conference are limited to ten participants. (C)

10. The sauce on the vegetables in the yellow bowl taste really delicious. (I)

Page 189-190

Toefl Exercise (Skills 11 – 13)

  1. Nobody know when the process of glass-making was invented. (A)
  2. Sugars like glucose is made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. (D)
  3. Part of the electricity used in the United States today come from hydroelectric sources. (C)
  4. The languages of the world presents a vast array of structural similarities and differences. (B)
  5. The rise of multinationals have resulted in a great deal of legal ambiguity because multinationals can operate in so many jurisdictions. (D)
  6. All of the east-west interstate highways in the United States has even numbers, while north-south interstate highways are odd-numbered.( A)
  7. When a massive star in the large Magellanic Cloud expoded in 1987, a wave of neutrinos were detected on Earth. (C)
  8. Some of the agricultural practices used today is responsible for fostering desertification. (C)
  9. Every open space in the targeted area that has grass and a few bushes are occupied by
    the white-crowned sparrow. (B)
  10. Krakatoa is remembered as the volcano that put so much ash into the air that sunsets around the world was affected for two years afterward. (B)

Page 190-191

Toefl Review Exercise (Skills 1-13)

  1. Pictograms constitute the earliest system of writing. (D)
  2. At temperatures approaches absolute zero, substances prosses minimal energy. (B)
  3. The Earth’s one-year revolution around the Sun changes how falling sunlight on one  hemisphere or the other. (A)
  4. Though sporadic interest in regional dialects has existed for centuries, the first large-scale systematic studies did not take place until the nineteenth century. (A)
  5. The waters of the Chattahoochee River fills Lake Lanier. (A)
  6. The first set of false teeth similar to those in use today it was made in France in the 1780s. (A)
  7. The term “Yankee” was originally a nickname for people from New England, but now anyone from the United States are referred to as a Yankee.  (D)
  8. A network of small arteries, mostly sandwiched between the skin and the underlying muscles, supply blood to the face and scalp. (A)
  9. Mesquite is a small tree in the Southwest who can withstand the severest drought. (C)
  10. At the end of the revolution, most of the army units of the young nation was almost entirely disbanded, leaving a total national military force of eghty men in 1784. (D)

Paage 192-193

EXERCISE 14

  1. The pastries in that shop are very expensive but quite deliciously. (I)
  2. You can find some change to buy a paper in the drawer, on top of the dresser, or in the jar. (C)
  3. The living room was decorated with expensive painting and elegance lamps. (C)
  4. He knew that the financial problems were serious, that the situation was not going to  improve, and that he needed to get a job. (C)
  5. All day long during the trip to the mountains, they were skiing, sledding, or played in thesnow. (I)
  6. The car needs new tires but not a new enginee. (C)
  7. He stops working when he gets too tired to continue or when he has finished. (C)
  8. To get to the office, you should go trough this door, turn to the left, and continuation down the hall. (I)
  9. For dessert we could serve lemon pie, fruit tarts, chocolate cake, or butter cookies. (C)
  10. The sick child needs some medicine, some juice, and to rest. (I)

Page 194

EXERCISE 15

  1. He either lied or telling an unbelievable story. (I)
  2. The music at the concert was neither well played nor well liked. (C)
  3. He regularly studies both in the morning or in the evening. (I)
  4. The play that we saw last night was not only rather delightful but also quite meaningful. (C)
  5. He married her neither for her ability to cook nor her ability to clean house. (I)
  6. The discussion was both exciting and interest. (I)
  7. He withdrew all the money not only from the cheking account but also from the savings account. (C)
  8.  Neither the teacher or the students are ready to leave the classroom. (I)
  9. You can meet with me either in the next few minutes or at 4:00. (I)
  10. John is an adventurous person who enjoys not only skydiving but also goes parasailing. (I)

 

Page 194-195

EXERCISE (Skills 14 – 15)

  1. The advertisements appeared in the newspaper and on the radio. (C)
  2. She is trained as both an accountant and in nursing. (I)
  3. We can take either my car or yours to the party. (I)
  4. The coffee is too hot, too bitter, and too strength. (C)
  5. He not only passed the test but also receiving the highest score in the class. (I)
  6. Your ideas are neither more important or less important than the ideas of the others. (I)
  7. The meeting lasted only an hour but still seeming too long. (I)
  8. The novel was both emotional and description. (I)
  9. Either the counselor or her secretary can help you with that problem. (I)
  10. The leaves from the tree fell in the yard, in the pool, the driveway, and on the sidewalk. (I)

Page 195

TOEFL EXERCISE (SKILLS 14 – 15)

  1. Ballpoint pens are less versatile but more population than foumtain pens. (B)
  2. Riddles vary greatly in both grammatical and phonology form. (A)
  3. Blood preassure is measured by feeling the pulse and apply a force to the arm. (B)
  4. The moon has no atmosphere, no air, and no watery. (D)
  5. The firs matches were too hard to ignite, a mess, or too dangerously easy to ignite. (C)
  6. A 1971 U.S. government policy not only put warnings on cigarette packs but also banning  television advertising of cigarettes. (C)
  7. Demand, beauty, durability, rare, and perfection of cutting determine the value of gemstone. (C)
  8. The Harvard Yard, which was Harvard’s original campus, is still a major attraction for boyh students and visiting. (D)
  9. In 1862, the American Confederacy raised the Merrimack, renamed it Virginia, covered it whit iron plates, and an outfit it with ten guns. (D)
  10. The liquid crystals in a liquid crystal display (LCD) affect the polarized light so that it is either blocked and reflected by the segments of the display. (D)

Page 196

Toefl Review Exercise (Skills 1 – 15)

  1. Most cells in multicelled organisms perform specialization fuctions. (D)
  2. The big island of Hawaii, in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, was created by five volcanoes. (D)
  3. The sun uses up over four million tons of hydrogen per second but it still has enough hydrogen to last for the next billion years. (C)
  4. For Katherine L. Bates, who reached the top of Pikes Peak in 1893. the view provided the inspiration for her hymn “America the Beautiful”. (A)
  5. Coal, petroleum, and natural gascous are all fossil fuels. (B)
  6. The mass of neutron stars generally range from one-tenth to twice the mass of  the sun. (C)
  7. Grasses grow in ways that help them to survive being nibbled, chilly, or dried. (D)
  8. Most of Hemingway’s novels glorifies heroic exploits such as bullfighting or boxing. (B)
  9. Paleographers study ancient and medieval handwriting in order to establish not only its age and also its background. (D)
  10. The sounds produced by bullfrogs and toads vary greatly because each species have its own particular call. (C)

Page 197

EXERCISE 16

  1. We have already hearing the good news. (I)
  2. She has ridden her bicycle to school every day. (C)
  3. I have always believe you. (I)
  4. He has find the missing car keys. (I)
  5. They have put their money in a savings account. (C)
  6. Their parents have allowed them to stay up late. (C)
  7. She has never ran away from home before. (C)
  8. Have you ever saw a ghost? (I)
  9. They have taken three tests already this week. (C)
  10. He has offer  me a high-paying job. (I)

Page 198

EXERCISE 17

  1. She was study the textbooks all night long. (I)
  2. The pie was cut into six equal pieces. (C)
  3. Today the teacher is allow the students to leave class a few minutes early. (I)
  4. The class is teach every other semester. (I)
  5. Tom is bringing some drinks to the party. (C)
  6. The sick child was taken to see a doctor. (C)
  7. The children are swim in the backyard pool. (I)
  8. The diamond jewelry is always keep in a safe place. (C)
  9. The teacher is preparing a difficult exam for the students. (C)
  10. Dinner is served from 6:00 to 8:00. (I)

Page 199

EXERCISE 18

  1. You should try to respond politely. (C)
  2. Everyone must leaves the room immediately. (I)
  3. I could sat on the beach for hours. (I)
  4. She will asking you many difficult questions. (I)
  5. You can look at the book, but you cannot borrow it. (C)
  6. He may lies to you because he is not very truthful. (C)
  7. He knew that he would forgot the phone number. (I)
  8. The wetherman said that it might snowing tonight. (C)
  9. Perhaps we could bought a new car this year. (I)
  10. This course will satisfy the graduation requirement. (I)

Page 200
EXERCISE (Skills 16 – 18)

  1. We have became good friends in the last year. (I)
  2. Your name will be list in the new directory. (C)
  3. The new movie is receive good reviews. (C)
  4. She must have feel sorry about her bad behavior. (C)
  5. They have always given their family many presents. (I)
  6. We may be taking a vacation next week. (C)
  7. We could have taking a vacation last week. (C)
  8. The package might had been deliver by an express mail service. (C)
  9. I have not wrote very many letters to my friends. (I)
  10. The car should not have be drive anymore yesterday. (C)

Page 200-201

TOEFL EXERCISE (Skills 16 – 18)

  1. By the 1920s, many radio transmitters had been build. (D)
  2. Fish farming has rose in the United States in recent years. (C)
  3. In areas of volcanic activity, beach sand may contains dark minerals and little quartz. (B)
  4. Cro-Magnon man was names after the caves in southwest France where the first remains were discovered. (A)
  5. Lassie, the famous collie who made her first screen appearance in 1943, has always be played by a male dog. (D)
  6. A blue bigwig lizard stakes out a territory and will defending females within it against courting males. (A)
  7. President George Washington was inaugurates on the steps of the Federal Building in New York City. (A)
  8. By 1627, Plymouth had became a viable and growing community of fifty families, twenty-two goats, fifteen cows, and more than fifty pigs. (A)
  9. Tobacco was the crop on which the eminence of Williamburg and the prosperity of Virginia were base. (B)
  10. Because there may be scores of genes in each suspect DNA region, scientists must identifying and sequence the actual genes contributing to type I diabetes. (A)

Page 201-202

TOEFL REVIEW EXERCISE (Skill 1 – 18)

  1. The Pacific Ocean has the deepest valleys and canyons on the Earth. (D)
  2. In the United States, the participation of females in the labor force jumped from 37 percent in 1965 to 51 percent in 1980. (D)
  3. Some composers, such as Richard Wagner, have felt that interrupt arias the action of the opera too much and have written operas without them. (B)
  4. Water stored behind a dam can used to drive turbines. (A)
  5. Our universe may continue to expand as it gets colder,empty, and deader. (A)
  6. Every form of matter in the world are made up of atoms. (A)
  7. The lens and cornea are supply with nutrients and oxygen by the aqueous fluid. (B)
  8. Dodge City, laid out in 1872, owed both its prosperity and its famous to the buffalo in its  early years. (A)
  9. The amount of the two kinds of cholesterol in the blood have been shown to have an effect on the risk of heart attack. (A)
  10. By the time Noah Webster reached his mid-twenties, he had already publish an elementary speller. (A)

EXERCISE 2

April 8, 2011

Page 186

Exercise 11

1.      The subject (of the lectures) was quite interesting. (C)

2.      The supplies (for the camping trip) needs to be packed. (I)

3.      The chairs under the table in the dinning room is quite comfortable. (I)

4.      The players on the winning team in the competition put forth a lot of effort. (I)

5.      The food for the guests at the party are on the long tables. (C)

6.      The cost of the clothes was higher than i had expected. (I)

7.      The rugs in the front rooms of the house are going to be washed today. (C)

8.      The waiters and waitresses in this restaurant always serves the food efficiently. I)

9.      The lights in the corner of the room need to be kept on all night. (C)

10.  The meeting of the members of the council begins at 3:00 in the afternoon. (C)

Page 187

Exercise 12

1.      Half of the students in the class arrive early. (C)

2.      Some of the fruit are rotten. (I)

3.      All of the next chapter contains very important information. (C)

4.      Most of the people in the room is paying attention. (C)

5.      Part of the soup is left on the stove. (C)

6.      Some of the movie were just too violent for me. (I)

7.      All of the details in the report need to be checked. (I)

8.      Most of the money is needed to pay the bills. (C)

9.      The first half of the class consists of lecture and note-talking. (I)

10.  Some of the questions on the test was impossible to answer. (I)

 

Page 188

Exercise 13

1.      Anybody are welcome at the party. (I)

2.      No one here is afraid of skydiving. (C)

3.      Everyone in the world needs love and respect. (I)

4.      Someone have to clean up the house. (C)

5.      Each plant in the garden appear healty and strong. (C

6.      You should understand that anything is possible. (I)

7.      Everthing in the salad are good for you. (C)

8.      Nobody in the class have completed the assignment on time. (C)

9.      I am sure that every detail have been considered. (C)

10.  Everybody know the rules, but somebody is not following them. (I)

 

Page 189

Exercise (Sklills 11-13)

1.  The receptionist in the entryway to the offices is able to answer your questions. (C)

2.  All of the information in the documents are important. (C)

3.  Anyone in one of the classes has to take the final exam. (I)

4.  The coordinator of community services are arranging the program. (I)

5.  Most of the car are covered with mud. (C)

6.  Nothing more is going to be completed today. (C)

7.  The drinks in the pitchers on the table in the ballroom is for everyone. (C)

8.  Everybody were told to be here at 8:00, but somebody is not here. (C)

9.  Some of the meetings at the conference are limited to ten participants. (C)

10. The sauce on the vegetables in the yellow bowl taste really delicious. (I)

 

Page 189-190

Toefl Exercise (Skills 11 – 13)

1.      Nobody know when the process of glass-making was invented. (A)

2.      Sugars like glucose is made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. (D)

3.      Part of the electricity used in the United States today come from hydroelectric sources. (C)

4.      The languages of the world presents a vast array of structural similarities and differences. (B)

5.      The rise of multinationals have resulted in a great deal of legal ambiguity because multinationals can operate in so many jurisdictions. (D)

6.      All of the east-west interstate highways in the United States has even numbers, while north-south interstate highways are odd-numbered.( A)

7.      When a massive star in the large Magellanic Cloud expoded in 1987, a wave of neutrinos were detected on Earth. (C)

8.      Some of the agricultural practices used today is responsible for fostering desertification. (C)

9.      Every open space in the targeted area that has grass and a few bushes are occupied by
the white-crowned sparrow. (B)

10.  Krakatoa is remembered as the volcano that put so much ash into the air that sunsets around the world was affected for two years afterward. (B)

 

Page 190-191

Toefl Review Exercise (Skills 1-13)

1.      Pictograms constitute the earliest system of writing. (D)

2.      At temperatures approaches absolute zero, substances prosses minimal energy. (B)

3.      The Earth’s one-year revolution around the Sun changes how falling sunlight on one  hemisphere or the other. (A)

4.      Though sporadic interest in regional dialects has existed for centuries, the first large-scale systematic studies did not take place until the nineteenth century. (A)

5.      The waters of the Chattahoochee River fills Lake Lanier. (A)

6.      The first set of false teeth similar to those in use today it was made in France in the 1780s. (A)

7.      The term “Yankee” was originally a nickname for people from New England, but now anyone from the United States are referred to as a Yankee.  (D)

8.      A network of small arteries, mostly sandwiched between the skin and the underlying muscles, supply blood to the face and scalp. (A)

9.      Mesquite is a small tree in the Southwest who can withstand the severest drought. (C)

10.  At the end of the revolution, most of the army units of the young nation was almost entirely disbanded, leaving a total national military force of eghty men in 1784. (D)

 

Paage 192-193

EXERCISE 14

1.      The pastries in that shop are very expensive but quite deliciously. (I)

2.      You can find some change to buy a paper in the drawer, on top of the dresser, or in the jar. (C)

3.      The living room was decorated with expensive painting and elegance lamps. (C)

4.      He knew that the financial problems were serious, that the situation was not going to improve, and that he needed to get a job. (C)

5.      All day long during the trip to the mountains, they were skiing, sledding, or played in the snow. (I)

6.      The car needs new tires but not a new enginee. (C)

7.      He stops working when he gets too tired to continue or when he has finished. (C)

8.      To get to the office, you should go trough this door, turn to the left, and continuation down the hall. (I)

9.      For dessert we could serve lemon pie, fruit tarts, chocolate cake, or butter cookies. (C)

10.  The sick child needs some medicine, some juice, and to rest. (I)

 

Page 194

EXERCISE 15

1.      He either lied or telling an unbelievable story. (I)

2.      The music at the concert was neither well played nor well liked. (C)

3.      He regularly studies both in the morning or in the evening. (I)

4.      The play that we saw last night was not only rather delightful but also quite meaningful. (C)

5.      He married her neither for her ability to cook nor her ability to clean house. (I)

6.      The discussion was both exciting and interest. (I)

7.      He withdrew all the money not only from the cheking account but also from the savings account. (C)

8.       Neither the teacher or the students are ready to leave the classroom. (I)

9.      You can meet with me either in the next few minutes or at 4:00. (I)

10.  John is an adventurous person who enjoys not only sky diving but also goes parasailing. (I)

Page 194-195

EXERCISE (Skills 14 – 15)

1.      The advertisements appeared in the newspaper and on the radio. (C)

2.      She is trained as both an accountant and in nursing. (I)

3.      We can take either my car or yours to the party. (I)

4.      The coffee is too hot, too bitter, and too strength. (C)

5.      He not only passed the test but also receiving the highest score in the class. (I)

6.      Your ideas are neither more important or less important than the ideas of the others. (I)

7.      The meeting lasted only an hour but still seeming too long. (I)

8.      The novel was both emotional and description. (I)

9.      Either the counselor or her secretary can help you with that problem. (I)

10.  The leaves from the tree fell in the yard, in the pool, the driveway, and on the sidewalk. (I)

 

Page 195

TOEFL EXERCISE (SKILLS 14 – 15)

1.      Ballpoint pens are less versatile but more population than foumtain pens. (B)

2.      Riddles vary greatly in both grammatical and phonology form. (A)

3.      Blood preassure is measured by feeling the pulse and apply a force to the arm. (B)

4.      The moon has no atmosphere, no air, and no watery. (D)

5.      The firs matches were too hard to ignite, a mess, or too dangerously easy to ignite. (C)

6.      A 1971 U.S. government policy not only put warnings on cigarette packs but also banning  television advertising of cigarettes. (C)

7.      Demand, beauty, durability, rare, and perfection of cutting determine the value of gemstone. (C)

8.      The Harvard Yard, which was Harvard’s original campus, is still a major attraction for boyh students and visiting. (D)

9.      In 1862, the American Confederacy raised the Merrimack, renamed it Virginia, covered it whit iron plates, and an outfit it with ten guns. (D)

10.  The liquid crystals in a liquid crystal display (LCD) affect the polarized light so that it is either blocked and reflected by the segments of the display. (D)

 

Page 196

Toefl Review Exercise (Skills 1 – 15)

1.      Most cells in multicelled organisms perform specialization fuctions. (D)

2.      The big island of Hawaii, in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, was created by five volcanoes. (D)

3.      The sun uses up over four million tons of hydrogen per second but it still has enough hydrogen to last for the next billion years. (C)

4.      For Katherine L. Bates, who reached the top of Pikes Peak in 1893. the view provided the inspiration for her hymn “America the Beautiful”. (A)

5.      Coal, petroleum, and natural gascous are all fossil fuels. (B)

6.      The mass of neutron stars generally range from one-tenth to twice the mass of  the sun. (C)

7.      Grasses grow in ways that help them to survive being nibbled, chilly, or dried. (D)

8.      Most of Hemingway’s novels glorifies heroic exploits such as bullfighting or boxing. (B)

9.      Paleographers study ancient and medieval handwriting in order to establish not only its age and also its background. (D)

10.  The sounds produced by bullfrogs and toads vary greatly because each species have its own particular call. (C)

 

 

Page 197

EXERCISE 16

1.      We have already hearing the good news. (I)

2.      She has ridden her bicycle to school every day. (C)

3.      I have always believe you. (I)

4.      He has find the missing car keys. (I)

5.      They have put their money in a savings account. (C)

6.      Their parents have allowed them to stay up late. (C)

7.      She has never ran away from home before. (C)

8.      Have you ever saw a ghost? (I)

9.      They have taken three tests already this week. (C)

10.  He has offer me a high-paying job. (I)

 

Page 198

EXERCISE 17

1.      She was study the textbooks all night long. (I)

2.      The pie was cut into six equal pieces. (C)

3.      Today the teacher is allow the students to leave class a few minutes early. (I)

4.      The class is teach every other semester. (I)

5.      Tom is bringing some drinks to the party. (C)

6.      The sick child was taken to see a doctor. (C)

7.      The children are swim in the backyard pool. (I)

8.      The diamond jewelry is always keep in a safe place. (C)

9.      The teacher is preparing a difficult exam for the students. (C)

10.  Dinner is served from 6:00 to 8:00. (I)

 

Page 199

EXERCISE 18

1.      You should try to respond politely. (C)

2.      Everyone must leaves the room immediately. (I)

3.      I could sat on the beach for hours. (I)

4.      She will asking you many difficult questions. (I)

5.      You can look at the book, but you cannot borrow it. (C)

6.      He may lies to you because he is not very truthful. (C)

7.      He knew that he would forgot the phone number. (I)

8.      The wetherman said that it might snowing tonight. (C)

9.      Perhaps we could bought a new car this year. (I)

10.  This course will satisfy the graduation requirement. (I)

 

Page 200
EXERCISE (Skills 16 – 18)

1.      We have became good friends in the last year. (I)

2.      Your name will be list in the new directory. (C)

3.      The new movie is receive good reviews. (C)

4.      She must have feel sorry about her bad behavior. (C)

5.      They have always given their family many presents. (I)

6.      We may be taking a vacation next week. (C)

7.      We could have taking a vacation last week. (C)

8.      The package might had been deliver by an express mail service. (C)

9.      I have not wrote very many letters to my friends. (I)

10.  The car should not have be drive anymore yesterday. (C)

 

 

 

Page 200-201

TOEFL EXERCISE (Skills 16 – 18)

1.      By the 1920s, many radio transmitters had been build. (D)

2.      Fish farming has rose in the United States in recent years. (C)

3.      In areas of volcanic activity, beach sand may contains dark minerals and little quartz. (B)

4.      Cro-Magnon man was names after the caves in southwest France where the first remains were discovered. (A)

5.      Lassie, the famous collie who made her first screen appearance in 1943, has always be played by a male dog. (D)

6.      A blue bigwig lizard stakes out a territory and will defending females within it against courting males. (A)

7.      President George Washington was inaugurates on the steps of the Federal Building in New York City. (A)

8.      By 1627, Plymouth had became a viable and growing community of fifty families, twenty-two goats, fifteen cows, and more than fifty pigs. (A)

9.      Tobacco was the crop on which the eminence of Williamburg and the prosperity of Virginia were base. (B)

10.  Because there may be scores of genes in each suspect DNA region, scientists must identifying and sequence the actual genes contributing to type I diabetes. (A)

 

Page 201-202

TOEFL REVIEW EXERCISE (Skill 1 – 18)

1.      The Pacific Ocean has the deepest valleys and canyons on the Earth. (D)

2.      In the United States, the participation of females in the labor force jumped from 37 percent in 1965 to 51 percent in 1980. (D)

3.      Some composers, such as Richard Wagner, have felt that interrupt arias the action of the opera too much and have written operas without them. (B)

4.      Water stored behind a dam can used to drive turbines. (A)

5.      Our universe may continue to expand as it gets colder,empty, and deader. (A)

6.      Every form of matter in the world are made up of atoms. (A)

7.      The lens and cornea are supply with nutrients and oxygen by the aqueous fluid. (B)

8.      Dodge City, laid out in 1872, owed both its prosperity and its famous to the buffalo in its  early years. (A)

9.      The amount of the two kinds of cholesterol in the blood have been shown to have an effect on the risk of heart attack. (A)

10.  By the time Noah Webster reached his mid-twenties, he had already publish an elementary speller. (A)

ROLE OF FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

Maret 24, 2011

Financial management is the management of financial functions. Financial functions include begaimana obtain funds (raising of funds) and how to use these funds (allocation of funds). Financial managers are concerned with the determination of total assets worth of investments in various assets and choose the sources of funds to finance the asset. To obtain funds, financial managers can obtain it from within and outside the company. Sources from outside the company come from the capital market, may take the form of debt or equity capital.

Financial management can be defined from the duties and responsibilities of financial manager. The main task of financial management, among others, include decisions to invest, financing business activities and the distribution of dividends a company, thus the task of financial managers is to plan to maximize shareholder value. Another important activity that should be the financial manager concerning the four aspects:

1.      Financial managers must cooperate with other managers in charge of general planning company.

2.      Financial managers must focus on various investment and financing decisions, and other aspects related to

3.      Financial managers must cooperate with managers in the company so the company can operate as efficiently as possible

4.      Financial managers must be able to connect the company with the financial markets, where companies can obtain funds and corporate securities can be traded.

Another important aspect of corporate goals and objectives of financial management is the consideration of social responsibility that can be viewed from four aspects, namely:

1.      If financial management leads to memeksimalisasi stock price, it needs good management and efficient in accordance with consumer demand.

2.      Companies that managed to always put efficiency and innovation as a priority, resulting in new products, new technological discoveries and expanding employment

3.      External factors such as environmental pollution, product safety assurance and safety becomes more important to consider. Fluctuations in all levels of business activity and the changes that occur in conditions of financial markets is an important aspect of the external environment.

4.      Cooperation between industry and government is needed to create regulations governing corporate behavior, and vice versa companies comply with these regulations. Corporate purpose is essentially value of the company with technical considerations.

Basically, the purpose of financial management is to maximize corporate value. However, behind this goal is still there is a conflict between business owners with providers of funds as creditors. If the company running smoothly, then the value of the company’s stock will rise, while the value of corporate debt in the form of bonds is not affected at all. So it can be concluded that the value of stock ownership can be an appropriate index to measure the level of efektifitias company. Based on that reason, the financial management objectives expressed in terms of maximizing the value of shares of corporate ownership, or maximize stock prices. The purpose of maximizing the stock price does not mean that managers should attempt to seek capital appreciation of shares at the expense of bondholders.

INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND BUSINESS STRATEGY

Maret 24, 2011

Strategic information systems, computer systems used to change the target level of organization, operations, products, services, or environmental relationships to help organizations achieve competitive advantage.
The decision of the company’s business strategy depends on:
• Products and services company dhasilkan
• Industries in which companies compete
• Competitors, suppliers, and customers of the company
• The long term objectives of the company

Business-level Strategy: Value Chain Model
The most common strategy for this level are:
1. be producing products with low production costs
2. differentiate products and services
3. change the scope of competition either by expanding its market to the global market as well as by narrowing the market.

Value chain model, a model that gives attention to the primary and supporting activities that add value to products and services company where information systems are best applied to gain competitive advantage. Yaituaktivitas primary activity is directly associated with the production and distribution company product or service. While supporting activities are activities that allow execution of primary activities. Consisting of organizational infrastructure, human resources, technology, and procurement. Value refers to the web customer-controlled network of companies that utilize information technology to coordinate its supply chain to collectively produce products or services to market.

Products and Services Information System
Systems that create product differentiation:
• Companies can use IT to develop different products.
• Creating brand loyalty by developing new and unique products and services
• Products and services not easily duplicated by competitors. For example, Dell Corporation.

Systems that Support Market Niche
Intensive analysis using customer data to support new ways of contact and serve customers which allows to develop new market niches for specialized products or services. For example, frequent guest program Wyndam Hotel

Supply Chain Management and Efficient Customer Response System
The system connects to the enterprise value chain value chain of suppliers and consumers. System that directly links back to the distributor of consumer behavior, production, and supply chain. Example: Wal-Mart directly connecting customers to suppliers purchase almost immediately. work of suppliers is to ensure that products shipped to the store to replace the product purchased.
IT at the organizational level is used to avoid the shift of customers to other suppliers and bind them to the company. Replacement cost is the cost incurred by the customer or the company for the time and resources are wasted when switching from one supplier or to the system supplier or a competitor’s system. For example, Baxter International.

Corporate-level strategy and Information Technology
Extending the core competencies, the activities in which the company excels as a world class leader. Information systems to encourage knowledge sharing across business units and therefore increase the competence of the company.
Industry-level strategy and Information Systems: competitive forces and the network economy. The company operates in a larger environment consisting of other companies, governments, and nations. Information Partnership, an alliance cooperation made by two or more companies which aims to share information to gain strategic advantage. Helping companies gain access to new customers, creating new opportunities for cross-selling and targeting products.

Porter’s five forces model
In larger environments, there are five main force or threat:
1. New market entrants
2. Product and service replacement
3. Suppliers
4. Customer
5. Other companies that compete directly
Competitive forces model, the model used directly to explain the interaction of external influences, specific threats and opportunities, which affect strategy and organization’s ability to compete. Internet technology has affected the industry structure with
• Providing technology that make it easier for competitors to compete on price and new players on the market.
• improving the information available for customers on price preformance thus increasing the bargaining powernya.
• Lowering the power supplier
• substitution Goods

Business Ecosystem
IT plays a strong role in creating new forms of ecosystem products business. Business Ecosystem is a network of suppliers, distributors, outsourcing firms, transportation companies, and manufacturing technology related. For example, Microsoft: 1 billion PCs around the world and hundreds of thousands of businesses rely on the Microsoft platform. EBay: Millions of people and thousands of businesses using this platform. Wal-Mart: Enterprise systems used by suppliers to improve efficiency.

Network Economy
IT products and services showed strong network effects and potentially create a situation of “winner take all”. Networks make the cost to add other participants zero or less, otherwise the benefits could be even greater. Contrary to the law of profit decline in industrial and agricultural products. For example, the value of the Internet grows exponentially with linear increase in users. Because certain software may be standard (such as the Windows operating system or Windows Office), people can lock into the standard and value of Windows grew as more and more people are using it.

A good strategy, using IT to develop products and services that cause the network effect. Opportunity management, the Company faces the development of IT-based opportunities to gain strategic advantage.
Management Challenges
• Some companies are facing major obstacles in applying the contemporary system.
• After the gains achieved, there is difficulty in maintaining excellence.
• Organizations are often unable to change to accommodate new technology fast enough

Guidelines for Completion of strategic systems analysis
• Understand the structure and dynamics of industrial competition in which firms operate.
• Understanding the business value chain, companies, and industry
• Consider how companies can manage the “strategic shift” in an effort to implement systems that provide competitive advantage.

MANAGEMENT

Maret 24, 2011

Management is usually classified into 3 levels:
1. Operating the lowest level, for example: supervisor
2. Middle, for example: department head, division head
3. Executive / Top, example: president

Management functions include:

o   Planning the design of operational programs in detail, setting goals, and how to use resources to achieve that goal.

o   Organizing the set framework in which these activities are made.

o   Control of systematic management to achieve business goals.

o   Controlling the executive manager responsible for accounting functions.

Management Accounting (Management Accounting) is to measure and report financial information and non-financial to be used by managers to make decisions in order to accomplish organizational goals.

Financial Accounting (Financial Accounting) is to measure and report business transactions and preparing financial statements which are mainly intended for external parties and are prepared according to GAAP.

Cost Accounting (Cost Accounting) is to provide information to management accounting and financial accounting by measuring and reporting financial information and non-financial related to the cost of acquiring and utilizing resources in the organization.

EXERCISE 13 – 24

Maret 11, 2011

EXERCISE 13 Choose the letter of the word or group of words that best completes the sentence.

 

  1. A spacecraft is freed from friction after it is launched into space.
  2. Because lobsters blend with thaeir surroundings, or they hide in crevices for protection.
  3. While the shoulder is a ball-and-socket joint, the elbow is a simple hinge joint.
  4. A car has several sections with moving parts, good lubrication of those parts is essential.
  5. Bears cannot see well because they have small eyes.
  6. A land bridge existed at the Isthmus of Panama, so animals were able to migrate between North and South America.
  7. The empire State Building is mostly made of granite, it also contains some human-made materials.
  8. Pressure differences make the eardrum vibrate as sound waves enter the ear.
  9. An optical microscope magnifies as much as 2,000 times, but an electron microscope can magnify as much as million times.
  10. If scientific estimates are occurate, the Canon Diablo meteorite colliding with the Earth about 20,000 years ago.

     

 

EXERCISE 14 Choose the letter of the word or group of words that best completes the sentence.

 

  1. The economic activity of the Pueblo Indians centered on intensive agriculture.
  2. In popular terminology, any long snowstorm with a large amount of wind is called a blizzard.
  3. Nuciear power can be produced by fusion, it can also be produced by fission.
  4. If the temperature is high, igneous rocks may be changed into gneisses.
  5. In 1905, Henry Flafler announced his plants to extend his Florida East Coast Railway out across the sea to key West.
  6. The sound comes from a vibrating object will be high or low depending on the number of vibrations.
  7. During the late 1880’s, urban streetcars were electrified through the use of large motors.
  8. Biscayne National Park encompasses almost 274 square miles, but 96 percent of the park is under water.
  9. Legislation was passed in 1916 and 1917 gave the Wilson administration authority to intervence in the national economy if it proved necessary.
  10. Because a family of birds set up hausekeeping in JoelChandler Harris’s mailbox when the birds were in need of a place to stay, so the home was named the Wren’s Nest.

 

 

EXERCISE 15 Each of the following sentences contains more than one clause. Underline the subject once and the verb twice. Circle the connectors. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

 

C 1. It is unfortunate that the meal is not ready yet.

I 2. She told me when should pick her up.

I 3. The instructor explained where was the computer lab located.

C 4. We could not believe what he did to us.

I 5. Do you want to know if it going to rain tomorrow?

C 6. We never know whether we will get paid or not.

I 7. This evening you can decide what do you want to do.

I 8. The manager explained how wanted the work done.

C 9. The map showed where the party would be held.

I 10. Can you tell me why was the mail not delivered today.

 

 

EXERCISE 16 Each of the following sentences contains more than one clause. Underline the subject once and the verb twice. Circle the connectors. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

 

C 1. The teacher heard who answered the question.

I 2. I do not understand what it went wrong.

C 3. Of the three movies, I can’t decide which is the best.

I 4. She did not remember who in her class.

I 5. No one is sure what did it happen in front of the building.

C 6. We found out which was her favorite type of candy.

C 7. Do you know what caused the plants to die.

C 8. I am not sure which it is the most important course in the program.

C 9. We thought about who would be the best vice president.

I 10. She saw what in the box in the closet.

 

 

 

 

 

EXERCISE 17 Each of the following sentences contains more than one clause. Underline the subject once and the verb twice. Circle the connectors. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

 

I 1. It doubtful whether he will pass the test or not.

I 2. The group discussed who he should receive the prize.

C 3. It is not certain why the class was cancelled.

I 4. I will do what does it need to be done.

I 5. We forgot when did the movie start.

C 6. I would like to ask if you could come over for dinner this weekend.

I 7. The children knew which the best game to play.

I 8. The advisor informed her that needed to add another class.

C 9. He saw who took the money.

C 10. It is unclear how the window got broken.

 

 

EXERCISE 18 Choose the letter of the word or group of words that best completes the sentence.

 

  1. Today the true story of what happenend at Little Bignorn remains a mystery.
  2. For more than a decade, bird-whatches have warned that certain species are becoming scarce.
  3. Early in the eighteenth century, Halley accurately predicated when the comet of 1682 would return.
  4. No single factor explains why aging has an effect vary so greatly among individuals.
  5. Lack of clarity about who will lead the party in the coming year will be removed at the party’s convention.
  6. We do not know whether the bow drill was first developed for woodworking or fire making.
  7. Minute Man National Histotical Park is a monument to where the beginning of the Revolutionary War.
  8. Tests on the colors of cars were conducted at the University of California to determine which the safest colors for cars.
  9. The National Institute of Dental Research estimates for school children in fluroridated areas have about 25 percent less tooth decay than children elsewhere.
  10. The process of photosynthesis explain how with green plants are able to use the energy in sunlight to manifacture foods from the simple chemicals in air and water.

 

 

 

EXERCISE 19 Choose the letter of the word or group of words that best completes the sentence.

 

  1. Air near the equator to have a faster west-to-west motion than air farther from the equator.
  2. About 4000 B.C., humans discovered that the ability of metalic obtained from special rocks called ores.
  3. In the degradation of DNA quickly after an animal dies.
  4. Improvement aerodynamic design has contributed a major part ia reancing resistance to motion.
  5. The southern part of Florida is much warmer in the winter than the northern part, so more touring flocks to the south.
  6. The Moon’s gravity pulls water on the near side of the Earth toward the Moon, and this is what causing tides to occur.
  7. As glaciers move, they pick up fragment of rock which become frozen into the base of the ice.
  8. Tha tape measure first evolved from the chains measure used by the Egyptians.
  9. A typical Atlantic hurricane starts as a low pressure system near the African coast.
  10. It is not clear whether the subdivisions of the neocortex are individual units.

     

 

EXERCISE 20 Each of the following sentences contains more than one clause. Underline the subject once and the verb twice. Circle the connectors. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

 

C 1. I did not believe the story that he told me.

I 2. Ms. Brown, whom did you recommend for the job, will start work

tomorrow.

I 3. The lecture notes which lent me were not clearly written.

C 4. Sally has an appointment with the hairdresser whom you recommended.

I 5. The phone number that you gave me.

I 6. She is able to solve all the problems which did she cause.

C 7. The day that she spent on the beach left her sunburned.

I 8. Next week I am going to visit my cousins, whom have not seen in several

years.

I 9. Did you forget the promise whom you made?

C 10. The teacher whom the students like the most is their history teacher.

 

 

 

 

EXERCISE 21 Each of the following sentences contains more than one clause. Underline the subject once and the verb twice. Circle the connectors. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

 

C 1. The children that were vaccinated did not get sick.

I 2. I did not vote for the politician who he just won the election.

C 3. The dog that barking belongs to my neighbor.

C 4. I took two of the blue pills, which were very effective.

I 5. We rented an apartement from the landlord who does he own the buildings

on Maple Street.

C 6. She forgot to attend the meeting which it began at 11.00

C 7. Any student who does not turn in the paper by Friday will fail the class.

I 8. The people which came in late had to sit at the back

C 9. The courses that satisfy the graduation requirements they are difficult.

C 10. After dinner she went to visit her parents, who were living down the street.

 

 

 

EXERCISE 22 Each of the following sentences contains more than one clause. Underline the subject once and the verb twice. Circle the connectors. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

 

C 1. My sisters prefer to eat food that have cooked themselves.

C 2. The boat that hit the underwater rock sank.

C 3. The car which he was driving could not possibly be his.

I 4. The children built a house in the tree that in the backyard.

I 5. The cost of the trip which we wanted to take.

C 6. The children are playing with the toys which their mother told them to put

away.

C 7. The guests who were seated around the dinner table.

C 8. The students have to read all the chapters which are on the test.

I 9. I really do not like the artists which you like.

C 10. The stoners that they were set in me ring were quite valuable.

 

 

EXERCISE 23 Choose the letter of the word or group of words that best completes the sentence.

 

  1. Modern humans, who first appeared about 600,000 years ago, were called Homo sapiens.
  2. The first writing that we have evidence of is on Mesopotamian clay tablets.
  3. They are succulents drought-resistant plants which store water in fleshy tissue.
  4. Benjamin Kabelsky, whom knowing most people as Jack Benny, was a famous comedian in vaudeville and on radio and television.
  5. Dinosaur are known that hunted other animals tended to have very narrow, sharp, curved claws.
  6. The first eyeglasses had convex lenses for the aged who had become far sighted.
  7. Chimney Rock, which stands 500 feet above the North Platte River, has eroded considerably in the last two centuries.
  8. The hormones change that accompany reccuring bouts of severe depression reduce bone density.
  9. Willa Cather is an author whom readers praise for her evocative and memorable vision of frontier prairie life.
  10. Mars’s tiny moon Phobos is a small montain of rock that was probably captured from the asteroid belt by Mars’s gravitational pull.

     

 

EXERCISE 24 Choose the letter of the word or group of words that best completes the sentence.

 

  1. Because of Annapolis is famous as the home of the United States Naval Academy.
  2. Some scientists think that Pluto might not be a planet but a moon of Neptune.
  3. With the appearance of sophisticated oil lamps, elaborate tools were made to cut the wicks.
  4. Fort Union was the site of what being the principal fur-trading post on the upper Missouri River.
  5. Since moving faces commercial risk, it has to appeal to a large audience to justify its cost.
  6. A current of water known as the Gulf Stream comes up from the Gulf of Mexico, and then it croses the North Atlantic toward Europe.
  7. System using the two symbol 0 and 1 are called binary number systems.
  8. Genes, which are the blueprints for cell construction, exist in tightly organized packages called chromosomes.
  9. The Earth’s atmosphere consists of gases held in place around the Earth by the gravitational pull of the planet.
  10. Oscar Hammerstein H collaborated with a number of composers including Jerome Kern, whom was joined in writing the musical Show Boal.

EXERCISE 1 – 12

Maret 11, 2011

EXERCISE 1 Underline the subjects once and the verbs twice in each of the following sentences. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

 

I 1. My best friend always helpful with problems.

C 2. The bus schedule has changed since last week.

I 3. Accidentally dropped the glass on the floor.

C 4. The customer paying the clerk for the clothes.

C 5. The professor handed the syllabus to the students.

I 6. Each day practiced the piano for hours.

C 7. The basketball player tossed the ball into the hoop.

I 8. The new student in the class very talkative and friendly.

C 9. Walking with the children to school.

C 10. The whales headed south for the winter.

 

 

EXERCISE 2 Each of the following sentences contains one or more prepositional phrases. Underline the subjects once and the verbs twice. Circle the prepositional phrases that come before the verb. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

 

C 1. The name of baby in the crib is Jack.

I 2. By the next meeting of the class need to turn in the papers

I 3. The directions to the exercise on page twenty unclear.

C 4. Because of the heavy rain troughout the night the walkways are muddy.

I 5. During the week eat lunch in the school cafetaria.

I 6. In the morning after the concert was tired.

C 7. In the summer the trip to the montains is our favorite trip.

I 8. In a box on the top shelf of the cabine in the hallway of the house.

I 9. With her purse in her hand ran through the door.

C 10. At 1:00 in the morning the alrm clock on the table beside the bed rang.

 

 

EXERCISE 3 Underline the subjects once and the verbs twice. Circle the prepositional phrases that come before the verb. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

 

I 1. During the meeting in the office discussed the schedule.

I 2. The doctor gave the patient a prescription.

I 3. The tall evergreen trees along the road.

C 4. The watch in the jewelry box needs a new battery.

I 5. Pleasantly greets everyone in all the offices every morning.

I 6. In the office of the building across the street from the park on the corner.

C 7. The dishes in the sink really need to be washed as soon as possible.

I 8. In a moment of worry about the problem with the cash in the account.

C 9. The plane from New York circling the airport.

C 10. On a regular basis the plants in the boxes under the window in the kitchen

are watered and fed.

 

 

EXERCISE 4 Choose the letter of the word group of the word that best completes the sentence.

 

  1. Mark Twain called the years after the Civil War the “Gilded Age”.
  2. Early horses had toes instead of hooves on their feet.
  3. Tundra plants grow close to the ground in the short Arctic summer.
  4. In 1867 the United States purchased of Alaska from the Russians for $7.2 million.
  5. Between 1725 and 1750, New England witnessed an increase in the specialization of occupations.
  6. The large carotid artery carrying blood to the main parts of the brain.
  7. Marconi developed radio as the first practical system of wireless telegraphy.
  8. In 1975, the first successful space probe to Venus was beginning to send information back to Earth.
  9. The two biggest resort in Arkansas are Hot Springs and Eurika Springs.
  10. NASA’s Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center was the control center for the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo space flights.

     

 

EXERCISE 5 Each of the following sentences countains one more present participles. Underline the subject once and the verbs twice. Circle the present participles and label them as adjectives or verbs. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

 

C 1. The crying baby needs to be picked up.

I 2. The clothes are lying on the floor should go into the washing machine.

C 3. The waitress bringing the steaming soup to the waiting diners.

C 4. Most of the striking workers are walking the picket line.

C 5. For her birthday, the child is getting a talking doll.

C 6. The setting sun creating a rainbow of colors in the sky.

I 7. The ship is sailing to Mexico is leaving tonight.

C 8. The letters needing immediate answer are on the desk.

I 9. The boring class just ending a few minutes ago.

C 10. The last -moving clouds are bringing freezing rain to the area.

 

 

EXERCISE 6 Each of the following sentences countains one more present participles. Underline the subject once and the verbs twice. Circle the present participles and label them as adjectives or verbs. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

 

I 1. The food is served in this restaurant is delicious.

C 2. The plane landed on the deserted runway.

I 3. The unexpected guests arrived just at dinnertime.

I 4. The courses are listed in the catalogue are required courses.

C 5. The teacher found the lost exam.

I 6. The small apartment very crowded and disorganized.

I 7. The photographs developed yesterday showed Sam and his friends.

C 8. The locked drawer contained the onworn jewels.

I 9. The tree was blown over in the storm was cut into logs.

C 10. The students registered in this course are listed on thet sheet of paper.

 

EXERCISE 7 Each of the following sentences countains one more present participles. Underline the subject once and the verbs twice. Circle the present participles and label them as adjectives or verbs. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

 

C 1. Our hosts are serving drinks on the tiled patio.

C 2. The tired woman taking a much-needed nap.

C 3. The letters were sent on Monday arrived on Wednesday.

C 4. The winners deserved the big prize.

I 5. The plants are growing in the garden need a lot of water.

I 6. The shining stars lit up the darkned sky.

I 7. The driver rapidly increased the speed of the racing car.

C 8. The excited children trying to build a snowman in the falling snow.

I 9. The student are completing the course will graduate in June.

C 10. The dissatisfied customer is returning the broken toaster to the store.

 

EXERCISE 8 Choose the letter of the word or group of word that best completes the sentence.

 

  1. The first plants flowers appeared dusring the last periode of the dinosaurs’ reign.
  2. The earliest medicines were obtained from plants of various sorts.
  3. Simple sails were made from canvas stretched over a frame.
  4. Pluto’s moon Charon is moving in a slightly elliptical path arround the planet.
  5. Techniques of breath control form an essential part of any training program to improve the voice.
  6. Robert E.Lee surrendered the Confederate Army to General Grant in 1865 at the Appomattox Courthouse.
  7. The pituitary gland found below the brain releases hormones to control other glands.
  8. At around two years of age, many children regularly produce sentences containing three or four words.
  9. Multinasional companies are finding it increasingly important to employ internationally acceptable brand names.
  10. The cornea is located under the conjunctiva on the exposed part of the eye.

 

EXERCISE 9 Choose the letter of the word or group of word that best completes the sentence.

 

  1. The Polynesians arrived first settled the Hawaiian Islands between A.D. 300 and 750.
  2. In 1066, a bright comet was appearing in the sky attracted much attention.
  3. In some daguerreotype cameras, the object’s view throught a hole in the back of the box.
  4. In the Stone Age, stone tools were polised with other rock materials.
  5. The first steamship to cross the Atlantic was the Savannah, in 1819.
  6. The Earth’s plates meet each other at cracks in the Earth called faults.
  7. The first plant-like organisms probably lived in the sea, perhaps three billion years ago.
  8. In male pattern baldness, heredity has strongly influences the degree of hair loss.
  9. In Watch the Skies, Curtis Peebles makes a fascinating attempt to explain America’s belief in flying saucers.
  10. The irregular coastline of Massachuseus is a succesion of bays and inlets, with the hook of the Cape Cod peninsula in the southeast.

 

EXERCISE 10 Each of the following sentences contains more that one clause. Underline the subject once and the verbs twice. Circle the connector. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

 

C 1. The lawn needs water every day, or it will turn brown.

I 2. The book was not long, but it difficult to read.

I 3. It was raining, so decided not to go camping.

C 4. The material has been cut, and the pieces have been sewn together

I 5. The patient took all the medicine, he did not feel much better.

I 6. The bill must be paid immediately, or the electricity will turned off.

C 7. The furnace broke so the house got quite cold.

C 8. The dress did not cost too much, but the quality it seemed excellent.

C 9. The leaves kept falling off the trees, and the boys kept raking them up, but

the yard was still covered.

C 10. The postman has already delivered the mail, so the letters is not going to

arrive today, it probably will arrive tomorrow.

 

EXERCISE 11 Each of the following sentences contains more than one clause. Underline the subject once and the verb twice. Circle the connectors. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

 

C 1. After the plane circled the airport, it landed on the main runway.

I 2. The registration process took many hours since the lines so long.

I 3. The type of medicine can be helpful, it can also have some bad side effects.

C 4. The waves were amazingly high when the storm hot the coastal town.

I 5. We need to get a new car whether is on sale or not.

C 6. Just as the bread came out of the oven, while a wonderful aroma filled the

kitchen.

C 7. Everyone has spent time unpacking boxes since the family moved into the

new house.

I 8. Altough the area is a desert many plants bloom there in the springtime.

I 9. The drivers in the freeway drove slowly and carefully while the rain was

falling heavily because they did not want to have an accident.

I 10. If you plan carefully before you take a trip, will have a much better time

because the small details will not cause problems.

 

 

 

 

EXERCISE 12 Each of the following sentences contains more than one clause. Underline the subject once and the verb twice. Circle the connectors. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

 

C 1. The lawyer presented a strong case, but the client was still found guilty.

C 2. After the children read some stories before they went to bed.

I 3. The report needed to be completed, the workers stayed late every night for a

week.

C 4. If you do not turn on the light, you will trip in the dark.

C 5. A thick fog came rolling in, so planes unable to land.

C 6. All of the shoes are on sale until the current stock is gone.

C 7. The ship leaving the dock even thougt some passengers were not on board.

C 8. The outline must be turned in to the teacher a week before the paper is due,

and must approve it.

I 9. Because the food was cold when it was served the diners sent it back to the

kitchen.

C 10. You should slow down while you are driving, or the police will pull your

car over.

TOEFL

Maret 8, 2011

ALL ABOUT TOEFL

 

Test of English as a Foreign Language TOEFL is a test of English language proficiency (an American accent) who is required to register go to college (college) or university in the United States or other countries in the world. This exam is required for applicants whose native language or the speaker is not English. TOEFL exam is organized by the office of ETS (Educational Testing Service) in the United States to test all participants throughout the world. Type the TOEFL English test is generally required for college entrance requirements in almost all universities in the United States and Canada for both undergraduate program (S-1) or graduate (S-2 or S-3). TOEFL test results are also used as a material consideration of English language proficiency of prospective students who apply to universities in other countries, including universities in Europe and Australia. In general, the TOEFL test is more oriented to American Home, and a few different types of IELTS which is oriented to the British Home.

TOEFL has two general objectives are: Academic and General. In the same form, TOEFL certification recommendation could use for both. Academic tests are used for educational purposes, research or related academic activities abroad, or in Indonesia. For post-graduate, usually a minimum value is 550. while for S1 is 500. General is generally used for the purpose of employment, promotion or job assignment. Many companies that install the English language standard employees by looking at TOEFL score – his. Generally, a minimum TOEFL score is 500 for a standard promoted.

As far as I encountered, the range of TOEFL scores – average Indonesian people with minimal education level S1 is very volatile. There are even some who do not know what and for what it is TOEFL (they read: “tufl”). Not so with the decision-English majors in college. At least they know what is a TOEFL. However, TOEFL score of a student or graduate English majors does not guarantee high. In some cases recruiment times, I found some applicants get the TOEFL score of 300, whereas in the proposal, the person concerned is an alumni of the ABA (Foreign Language Academy).While in general, fluctuations in the average TOEFL score – rating ranges from 300 to 600.

Generally, people understand that language is English speaking, conversation, cas cis cus and so on. English cover four main skills: Listening (digestion word through hearing), Writing (digestion words through writing and grammar), reading (digestive meaning of a text language) and speaking (able to pronounce it).
Speaking of language acquisition, it can not be removed from the mastery of four skills earlier, are perfect. However, many of them think, what matters is the ability to say it, even with a full-tolerance grammar and word choice are modest and the origin met.

For example:

John : Would you drive me to the hospital?

Us : Better go now ….

From the meaning of the conversation, saying it has a meaning. But we also know, the quality of a person known by the way he speaks, especially the use diksinya (choice of words).

Since 1998, the TOEFL test is conducted online using a computer (Computer-based Testing / CBT), and since 2005 called the iBT (Internet-based Test). In places that have not been able to carry out CBT or iBT (because there are no computer facilities and internet networks), the TOEFL test is still conducted manually using paper and pencil (paper-based test or PBT). More information about CBT tests and paper-based TOEFL relating to registration, venue, cost, and test preparation materials can be viewed on the official website of the TOEFL, http://www.toefl.org (CBT version of the TOEFL exam results have value ranges from 0 to 300, while the value for the iBT is from 0 to 120). Lately organizers also held a kind of TOEFL test TWE (Test of Written Home), which results in value is separate from the TOEFL test scores. This test takes 30 minutes, and participants will be asked to write a short essay that describes the ability of participants to express and translate an idea or ideas, and supporting the idea with the examples found in daily life using the English language standard.

KEADILAN DALAM BISNIS

Desember 18, 2010
  1. Paham tradisional mengenai keadilan

    a. Keadilan Legal

    Menyangkut hubungan antara individu atau kelompok masyarakat dengan negara. Intinya adalah semua orang atau kelompok masyarakat diperlakukan sama oleh negara dihadapan dan berdasarkan hukum yang berlaku. Semua pihak dijamin untuk mendapat perlakuan yang sama sesuai dengan hukum yang berlaku.

    b. Keadilan Komutatif

    Mengatur hubungan yang adil atau fair antara orang yang satu dengan yang lain atau warga negara satu dengan warga negara lainnya. Menuntut agar dalam interaksi sosial antara warga yang satu dengan yang lainnya tidak boleh ada pihak yang dirugikan hak dan kepentingannya.

    c. Keadilan Distributif

    Distribusi ekonomi yang merata atau yang dianggap merata bagi semua warga negara. Menyangkut pembagian kekayaan ekonomi atau hasil-hasil pembangunan. Dalam dunia bisnis, karyawan harus digaji sesuai denga prestasi, tugas dan tanggung jawab yang diberikan kepadanya. Keadilan distributif juga berkaitan dengan prinsip perlakuan yang sama sesuai dengan aturan dan ketentuan dalam perusahaan yang adil dan baik.

     

  2. Keadilan Individual dan Struktural
  • Keadilan dan upaya menegakkan keadilan menyangkut aspek lebih luas berupa penciptaan sistem yg mendukung terwujudnya keadilan tsb.
  • Prinsip keadilan legal berupa perlakuan yg sama thd setiap orang bukan lagi soal orang per orang, melainkan menyangkut sistem dan struktur sosial politik scr keseluruhan.
  • Untuk bisa menegakkan keadilan legal, dibutuhkan sistem sosial politik yg memang mewadahi dan memberi tempat bagi tegaknya keadilan legal tsb, termasuk dlm bidang bisnis.
  • Dalam bisnis, pimpinan perusahaan manapun yg melakukan diskriminasi tanpa dasar yg bisa dipertanggungjawabkan scr legal dan moral hrs ditindak demi menegakkan sebuah sistem organisasi perusahaan yg memang menganggap serius prinsip perlakuan yg sama, fair atau adil ini.
  • Dlm bidang bisnis dan ekonomi, mensyaratkan suatu pemerintahan yg juga adil: pemerintah yg tunduk dan taat pada aturan keadilan dan bertindak berdasarkan aturan keadilan itu.
  • Yg dibutuhkan adalah apakah sistem sosial politik berfungsi sedemikian rupa hingga memungkinkan distribusi ekonomi bisa berjalan baik utk mencapai suatu situasi sosial dan ekonomi yg bisa dianggap cukup adil.
  • Pemerintah mempunyai peran penting dalam hal menciptakan sistem sosial politik yg kondusif, dan juga tekadnya utk menegakkan keadilan. Termasuk di dalamnya keterbukaan dan kesediaan untuk dikritik, diprotes, dan digugat bila melakukan pelanggaran keadilan. Tanpa itu ketidakadilan akan merajalela dlm masyarakat

     

  1. Teori Adam Smith

    Prinsip Komutatif Adam Smith :

  • Prinsip No Harm

    Yaitu prinsip tidak merugikan orang lain, khususnya tidak merugikan hak dan kepentingan orang lain.Prinsip ini menuntut agar dlm interaksi sosial apapun setiap orang harus menahan dirinya untuk tidak sampai merugikan hak dan kepentingan orang lain, sebagaimana ia sendiri tidak mau agar hak dan kepentingannya dirugikan oleh siapapun.Dalam bisnis, tidak boleh ada pihak yg dirugikan hak dan kepentingannya, entah sbg konsumen, pemasok, penyalur, karyawan, investor, maupun masyarakat luas.

  • Prinsip Non-Intervention

    Yaitu prinsip tidak ikut campur tangan. Prinsip ini menuntut agar demi jaminan dan penghargaan atas hak dan kepentingan setiap orang, tidak seorangpun diperkenankan untuk ikut campur tangan dlm kehidupan dan kegiatan orang lain Campur tangan dlm bentuk apapun akan merupakan pelanggaran thd hak orang ttt yg merupakan suatu harm (kerugian) dan itu berarti telah terjadi ketidakadilan. Dlm hubungan antara pemerintah dan rakyat, pemerintah tidak diperkenankan ikut campur tangan dalam kehidupan pribadi setiap warga negara tanpa alasan yg dpt diterima, dan campur tangan pemerintah akan dianggap sbg pelanggaran keadilan. Dlm bidang ekonomi, campur tangan pemerintah dlm urusan bisnis setiap warga negara tanpa alasan yg sah akan dianggap sbg tindakah tidak adil dan merupakan pelanggran atas hak individu tsb, khususnya hak atas kebebasan.

  • Prinsip Keadilan Tukar

    Atau prinsip pertukaran dagang yg fair, terutama terwujud dan terungkap dlm mekanisme harga pasar.

  • Merupakan penerapan lebih lanjut dari no harm scr khusus dlm pertukaran dagang antara satu pihak dg pihal lain dlm pasar.
  • Adam Smith membedakan antara harga alamiah dan harga pasar atau harga aktual. Harga alamiah adalah harga yg mencerminkan biaya produksi yg telah dikeluarkan oleh produsen, yg terdiri dari tiga komponen yaitu biaya buruh, keuntungan pemilik modal, dan sewa. Harga pasar atau harga aktual adl harga yg aktual ditawarkan dan dibayar dlm transaksi dagang di dalam pasar.
  • Kalau suatu barang dijual dan dibeli pada tingkat harga alamiah, itu berarti barang tsb dijual dan dibeli pd tingkat harga yg adil. Pd tingkat harga itu baik produsen maupun konsumen sama-sama untung. Harga alamiah mengungkapkan kedudukan yg setara and seimbang antara produsen dan konsumen karena apa yg dikeluarkan masing-masing dpt kembali (produsen: dlm bentuk harga yg diterimanya, konsumen: dlm bentuk barang yg diperolehnya), maka keadilan nilai tukar benar-benar terjadi.
  • Dlm jangka panjang, melalui mekanisme pasar yg kompetitif, harga pasar akan berfluktuasi sedemikian rupa di sekitar harga alamiah shg akan melahirkan sebuah titik ekuilibrium yg menggambarkan kesetaraan posisi produsen dan konsumen.
  • Dlm pasar bebas yg kompetitif, semakin langka barang dan jasa yg ditawarkan dan sebaliknya semakin banyak permintaan, harga akan semakin naik. Pd titik ini produsen akan lebih diuntungkan sementara konsumen lebih dirugikan. Namun karena harga naik, semakin banyak produsen yg tertarik utk masuk ke bidang industri tsb, yg menyebabkan penawaran berlimpah dg akibat harga menurun. Maka konsumen menjadi diuntungkan sementara produsen dirugikan.

 

 

 

4. Teori Keadilan Distributif John Rawls

Pasar memberi kebebasan dan peluang yg sama bagi semua pelaku ekonomi. Kebebasan adalah nilai dan salah satu hak asasi paling penting yg dimiliki oleh manusia, dan ini dijamin oleh sistem ekonomi pasar. Pasar memberi peluang bagi penentuan diri manusia sbg makhluk yg bebas. Ekonomi pasar menjamin kebebasan yg sama dan kesempatan yg fair.

Prinsip-prinsip Keadilan Distributif Rawls

  • Prinsip Kebebasan yang sama.

    Setiap orang hrs mempunyai hak yg sma atas sistem kebebasan dasar yg sama yg paling luas sesuai dg sistem kebebasan serupa bagi semua. Keadilan menuntut agar semua orang diakui, dihargai, dan dijamin haknya atas kebebasan scr sama.

  • Prinsip Perbedaan (Difference Principle).

    Bahwa ketidaksamaan sosial dan ekonomi harus diatur sedemikian rupa shg ketidaksamaan tsb:

    a. Menguntungkan mereka yg paling kurang beruntung, dan

    b. Sesuai dg tugas dan kedudukan yg terbuka bagi semua di bawah kondisi persamaan kesempatan yg sama.

Jalan keluar utama utk memecahkan ketidakadilan distribusi ekonomi oleh pasar adalah dg mengatur sistem dan struktur sosial agar terutama menguntungkan kelompok yg tdk beruntung.

 

HAK PEKERJA

Desember 18, 2010

MACAM-MACAM HAK PEKERJA

  • Hak Atas Pekerjaan
  1. Kerja melekat pada tubuh manusia. Kerja adalah aktifitas tubuh dan karena itu tidak bisa dilepaskan atau difikirkan lepas dari tubuh manusia.
  2. Kerja merupakan perwujudan diri manusia, melalui kerja manusia merealisasikan dirinya sebagai manusia dan sekaligus membangun hidup dan lingkungannya yang lebih manusiawi. Maka melalui kerja manusia menjadi manusia, melalui kerja mamnusia menentukan hidupnya sendiri sebagai manusia yang mandiri.
  3. Hak atas kerja juga merupakan salah satu hak asasi manusia karena kerja berkaitan dengan hak atas hidup, bahkan hak atas hidup yang layak.

Hak atas pekerjaan ini tercantum dalam undang-undang dasar 1945 pasal 27 ayat 2 yang menyatakan bahwa “Tiap-tiap warga negara berhak atas pekerjaan dan penghidupan yang layak bagi kemanusiaan.

  • Hak atas upah yang adil

Hak atas upah yang adil merupakan hak legal yang diterima dan dituntut seseorang sejak ia mengikat diri untuk bekerja pada suatu perusahaan. Dengan hak atas upah yang adil sesungguhnya bahwa:

  1. Bahwa setiap pekerja berhak mendapatkan upah, artinya setiap pekerja berhak untuk dibayar.
  2. Setiap orang tidak hanya berhak memperoleh upah, ia juga berhak memperoleh upah yang adil yaitu upah yang sebanding dengan tenaga yang telah disumbangkannya.
  3. Bahwa perinsipnya tidak boleh ada perlakuan yang berbeda atau diskriminatif dalam soal pemberian upah kepada semua karyawan, dengan kata lain harus berlaku prinsip upah yang sama untuk pekerjaan yang sama.

     

  • Hak untuk berserikat dan berkumpul

Untuk bisa memperjuangkan kepentingannya, khususnya hak atas upah yang adil, pekerja harus diakui dan dijamin haknya untuk berserikat dan berkumpul. Yang bertujuan untuk bersatu memperjuangkan hak dan kepentingan semua anggota mereka. Menurut De Geroge, dalam suatu masyarakat yang adil, diantara perantara-perantara yang perlu untuk mencapai suatu sistem upah yang adil, serikat pekerja memainkan peran yang penting.

Ada dua dasar moral yang penting dari hak untuk berserikat dan berkumpul :

  1. Ini merupakan salah satu wujud utama dari hak atas kebebasan yang merupakan salah satu hak asasi manusia.
  2. Dengan hak untuk berserikat dan berkumpul, pekerja dapat bersama-sama secara kompak memperjuangkan hak mereka yang lain, khususnya atas upah yang adil.

Beberapa hal yang perlu dijamin dalam kaitan dengan hak atas keamanan, keselamatan dan kesehatan kerja:

  1. Setiap pekerja berhak mendapatkan perlindungan atas keamanan, keselamatan dan kesehatan melalui program jaminan atau asuransi keamanan dan kesehatan yang diadakan perusahaan itu.
  2. Setiap pekerja berhak mengetahui kemungkinan resiko yang akan dihadapinya dalam menjalankan pekerjaannya dalam bidang tertentu dalam perusahaan tersebut.
  3. Setiap pekerja bebas untuk memilih dan menerima pekerjan dengan resiko yang sudah diketahuinya itu atau sebaiknya menolaknya.

     

  • Hak untuk diproses hukum secara sah

Hak ini terutama berlaku ketika seorang pekerja dituduh dan diancam dengan hukuman tertentu diduga melakukan pelanggaran atau kesalahan tertentu. pekerja tersebut wajib diberi kesempatan untuk mempertanggungjawabkan tindakannya, dan kalau ternyata ia tidak bersalah ia wajib diberi kesempatan untuk membela diri.

  • Hak untuk diperlakukan secara sama

Pada perinsipnya semua pekerja harus diperlakukan secara sama, secara fair. Artinya tidak boleh ada diskriminasi dalam perusahaan entah berdasarkan warna kulit, jenis kelamin, etnis, agama dan semacamnya, baik dalam sikap dan perlakuan, gaji, maupun peluang untuk jabatan, pelatihan atau pendidikan lebih lanjut. Perbedan dalam hal gaji dan peluang harus dipertimbangkan secara rasional Diskriminasi yang didasrkan pada jenis kelamin, etnis, agama dan semacamnya adalah perlakuan yang tidak adil.

  • Hak atas rahasia pribadi

Karyawan punya hak untuk dirahasiakan data pribadinya, bahkan perusahan harus menerima bahwa ada hal-hal tertentu yang tidak boleh diketahui oleh perusahaan dan ingin tetap dirahasiakan oleh karyawan.

Hak atas rahasia pribadi tidak mutlak, dalam kasus tertentu data yang dianggap paling rahasia harus diketahui oleh perusahaan atau akryawan lainnya, misalnya orang yang menderita penyakit tertentu. Ditakutkan apabila sewaktu-waktu penyakit tersebut kambuh akan merugikan banyak orang atau mungkin mencelakakan orang lain.

Umumnya yang dianggap sebagai rahasia pribadi dan karena itu tidak perlu diketahui dan dicampuri oleh perusahaan adalah persoalan yang menyangkut keyakinan religius, afiliasi dan haluan politik, urusan keluarga serta urusan sosial lainnya.

  • Hak atas kebebasan suara hati

Pekerja tidak boleh dipaksa untuk melakukan tindakan tertentu yang dianggapnya tidak baik, a tau mungkin baik menurut perusahaan jadi pekerja harus dibiarkan bebas mengikuti apa yang menurut suara hatinya adalah hal yang baik.

WHISTLE BLOWING

Whistle blowing adalah tindakan yang dilakukan oleh seseorang atau beberapa orang karyawan untuk membocorkan kecurangan entah yang dilakukan oleh perusahaan atau atasannya kepada pihak lain. Pihak yang dilapori itu bisa saja atasan yang lebih tinggi atau masyarakat luas.

Rahasia perusahaan adalah sesuatu yang konfidensial dan memang harus dirahasiakan, dan pada umumnya tidak menyangkut efek yang merugikan apa pun bagi pihak lain, entah itu masyarakat atau perusahaan lain.

Whistle blowing umumnya menyangkut kecurangan tertentu yang merugikan baik perusahaan sendiri maupun pihak lain, dan kalau dibongkar memang akan mempunyai dampak yang merugikan perusahaan, paling kurang merusak nama baik perusahaan tersebut.

Contoh whistle blowing adalah tindakan seorang karyawan yang melaporkan penyimpangan keuangan perusahaan. Penyimpangan ini dilaporkan pada pihak direksi atau komisaris. Atau kecurangan perusahaan yang membuang limbah industri ke sungai.

Ada dua macam whistle blowing :

  1. Whistle blowing internal

    Hal ini terjadi ketika seorang atau beberapa orang karyawan tahu mengenai kecurangan yang dilakukan oleh karyawan lain atau kepala bagiannya kemudian melaporkan kecurangan itu kepada pimpinan perusahaan yang lebih tinggi.

  2. Whistle blowing eksternal

    Menyangkut kasus dimana seorang pekerja mengetahui kecurangan yang dilakukan perusahaannnya lalu membocorkannya kepada masyarakat karena dia tahu bahwa kecurangan itu akan merugikan masyarakat.